Ordinary computers use technology that has information in bits i.e. 0 and 1. In layman terms, all information is in terms of “Yes” or “No”. There is no third information. Various combinations of 0 and 1 form numbers and characters. But Quantam Computers encodes data into bits that can represent 0 and 1 and another quantum entity. ( In physics, a quantum is the minimum amount of any physical entity in terms of physical property involved in an interaction ).Such a combination is known as qubits. So what advantage it gives ? In simple words, quantum computer performs operations with computational speed and possibilities not available to classical computers. A quantum computer harnesses some of the almost-mystical phenomena of quantum mechanics to deliver huge leaps forward in processing power.
Quantum machines promise to outstrip even supercomputers. There is an increasing amount of investment in quantum computing by governments, established companies, and start-ups. Current research focuses on building and using a powerful and error-free quantum computer. It is not that classical computers will be wiped out. Using a classical machine will still be the easiest and most economical solution for tackling most problems. But quantum computers promise to power exciting advances in various fields, from materials science to pharmaceuticals research. Companies are already experimenting with them to develop things like lighter and more powerful batteries for electric cars, and to help create novel drugs. Quantum computers can be used to simulate the behavior of matter down to the molecular level. Car manufacturing companies are using quantum computers to simulate the chemical composition of electrical-vehicle batteries to help find new ways to improve their performance. And pharmaceutical companies are leveraging them to analyze and compare compounds that could lead to the creation of new drugs. Quantum machines can crunch through vast numbers of potential solutions extremely fast. Aircraft companies use them to help calculate the most fuel-efficient ascent and descent paths for aircraft. Some researchers also think the machines could be used to accelerate artificial intelligence.
It could take quite a few years for quantum computers to achieve their full potential. Universities and businesses working on them are facing a shortage of skilled researchers in the field—and a lack of suppliers of some key components. But if these exotic new computing machines live up to their promise, they could transform entire industries and turbocharge global innovation.